The most palpable way of understanding and organizing program is by imagining program parts as a series of activities that people/children engage in during the course of a day. You want to determine the flow of activities the children engage in as well as the transition from one activity to the next and render the program as a dynamic and fluid network.
Your overall aim is to modify the line-up of classroom versus corridor space of a typical kindergarten building and develop a spatial model, which is specific to your chosen pedagogical kindergarten model.
5.1 Generic Program
Familiarize your self with the generic kindergarten program. Draw the spaces listed in section 06 of the general syllabus. In a simple scaled drawing 1/8" = 1'-0". Draw program areas as simple nurb curve loops corresponding in area to the generic program square footage.
5.2 Project Program
Adjust the default program on the basis of your pedagogical model of choice. Generate a project specific program organization.
5.2.1 Activity Terms
Research activities of children (and of teachers and administrators) and sort them in priorities suggested by your pedagogical model,
Free play Structured play Circle time Art and craft Nature and science exploration Cooking and baking Snacking Resting Eating Reading Movement Music etc.
Consider the following aspects: - how much interaction does the activity involve - how big is the group of children/teachers involved? - how 'porous' is an activity, i.e., how much concentration does it require? - how 'porous' is an activity, i.e. how closely can another activity area be placed to it? - Outdoor exclusively/Indoor exclusively?
5.2.2 Time Based Diagram
Generate a time based activity diagram that registers the inflation or deflation of activity areas within the course of the day. Identify overlaps, adjacencies and activity clusters.
Start by listing daily and weekly routines that describe the schedules and activities of your chosen pedagogical kindergarten model. Identify the passage through program spaces a child enters or activates during a daily routine/weekly routine.
Specifically notate these three routines: Students daily schedule Students weekly schedule Extraordinary event (example: a parent event: a talent show, parent meeting)
Draw activity areas and program hybrids as nurb curve line drawings that include program sizes.
5.2.3 Hybrid Terms
Based on the activity overlaps, identify and name program hybrids that emerge as scenarios, which occur in your kindergarten project.
Example: Learning Corridor Playful Reading
5.3 Spatial Diagram
Generate a comprehensive organizational diagram of your kindergarten program that suggests a spatial layout based on activity sequences, as well as adjacencies and activity clusters. Identify program hybrids and clusters by differentiating line weights and line types
The layout renders square footage as well as vertical arrangement of spaces. Scale 1/8"=1'0" One horizontal section Two vertical sections
Karl Chu, Lawrence Blough, Jason Vigneri-Beane, Jeremy Carvalho, Terry Suzuki
- One page project description
- SEM image collection - Taxonomy - Refined Autopsy drawings
- Genealogy of Assembly System, paper models - Diagrams of System performance (local, global) - Pseudo Script, Script diagram, Script
- Site diagrams, Given site (top-down and bottom-up) - Refined site drawing, Project site at 1/64" = 1'-0" - Project site model, tectonic landscape at 1/32" = 1'-0" or 1/16" = 1'-0"
- Cross-Kindergarten precedent study (organization: circulation, program, site) - Cluster analysis Kindergarten precedents, diagrams - Classroom cluster paper model - Classroom cluster, plan and sections at 1/4" = 1'-0"
Within the programmatic cross-school analysis 4.1.1 identify and compare three precedent classroom modules. Read these spatial units for learning in the context of their adjacent program points, e.g. play area, outdoor space, bathroom. Draw a plan and section of the three identified classroom clusters (scale 1/4 or 1/8). Construct a schematic cluster analysis of the three precedents (no scale). Discuss the assemblies in terms of the language that you have established for your project. Compare the clusters' internal and external assembly logics to those of your natural models. How do cells form a cluster; how do clusters form a larger assembly; can you identify self-similar patterns? Consider an addition SEM Lab visit and secondary 'autopsy' drawings for additional resource material. Laser score from your cluster analysis and build two cluster models in paper, one from a select school precedent, and one from a natural model / your assembly model.
The SEM Matrix catalogues all material that is generated with the Hitachi Table-Top Scanning Electron Microscope in our studio during this fall semester 2007.
A first version of this Matrix - "SEM Matrix 1.0" - will be presented as a large poster during our mid-review on 10/22/2007. The base structure of the matrix is a simple column/row grid, with species information in one- and morphological information in the other dimension. Each cell of the matrix is comprised of an original specimen scan (enhanced b/w image), a corresponding analytical line drawing "autopsy", and the specimen's taxonometric indexing. A standard naming convention shall identify each cell within the matrix.
An extended version "SEM Matrix 2.0" will be presented at our final review on 12/3/2007. It shall be produced in the form of a large poster and a thick booklet. In addition to the preliminary cell structure of the matrix, a secondary organizational principal emerges to suggest an additional dimension and spatial intelligence of the SEM catalogue. Morphological, structural, tectonic and performance-based groupings allow for intuitive navigation and probing of the expanding SEM space. In addition to the enhanced scanning material, the autopsy drawing and the textual information, corresponding 3D models will be included (paper models, 3D prints, renderings).
New material systems emerge from the continuous feedback between Natural Model, Assembly Model and Synthetic Model. The emergent systems are tested on the site - Testing Ground - and optimized in their ability to adapt to multiple site pressures. The systems perform on a nano- and urban scale, and soon embrace building scales in between. Consistent language is used to discuss all performances.
3.5 Finer Mesh
Fine-tune the tools developed in 3.4 Site Mesh to record site pressures of immediate relevance to the Given Site located at Kent Avenue & North 7th in Williamsburg. Include in your study current and future site conditions between Kent Avenue and the waterfront. Generate a set of refined site meshes and discuss them in terms of your established system language. Select from the set your first Testing Ground.
3.6 Testing Ground
Augment the System's assembly intelligence while testing it on the Ground. The system grows to be more responsive to the Given Site conditions, as the role of the part to the whole, cell to lattice is further specified. The relationship that the unit establishes with its neighbors remains intact while the size and proportion of the units gradually changes across the field. The triangular cells of the Testing Ground (mesh) guide this change. Compare the system’s site responses to the responses of the corresponding Natural Model (SEM material). How does the system mediate between two different expressions; how does the system change density, how does it grow and shrink; how does the system come to an end, how does it meet an edge.
We study precedent organizations, read plans and sections of prominent school buildings, and, beyond typologies, we find organizational models. We test these models outside of man-made constructs and find them in biological models. Only then do we continue to speculate about the program that can be plugged into these organizations.
From a list of libraries (below) select three and conduct a cross-Kindergarten study according to the three topics below. Start by constructing and drafting (not tracing) one schematic plan and one section of each building/building proposal. Select an appropriate architectural scale (1/16 or 1/32) considering the information density and resolution you want to reveal; apply this scale to all six drawings. Limit the use of line weight and -type to a minimum. In a second step use the plans and sections as underlay for your analysis by topic. Use reasonably strong, black lines over light gray underlay lines.
4.1.1 Circulation: Reveal and compare the three schools’ circulation systems (circulatory system) in structural terms. Identify hierarchies (primary, secondary, tertiary) and non-hierarchical (horizontal) aspects of the system. Categorize access points, linkages and shortcuts. Work out the relations between movement and gathering spaces, and the relation between internal and external circulation; identify overlaps.
4.1.2 Program: Study and compare the three programmatic organizations. Show how the school organization defines areas of different activities and their relations. To what degree are the primary program points - play and study - separated and connected. What is the structural relation to secondary program points? Do programmatic clusters form; what is the adjacency logic, what is the program sequence? How are areas for students, teachers and administration related; does the organization correspond to systems of authority.
4.1.3 Building and Site: Discuss and compare in your drawings the three school buildings and their relation to the site. Is site integration revealed in plan and in section; to what extend does the site continue within the structure; how much does the building respond to the site? Identify the orientation to the sun (direct light), the organization of openings (light, views), the street access, and relation to neighbors. Does the school contrast its environment or merge with it?
Let us go back to the map and the territory and ask: "What is it in the territory that gets onto the map?" We know the territory does not get onto the map. That is the central point about which we all are agreed. Now, if the territory were uniform, nothing would get onto the map except its boundaries, which are the points at which it ceases to be uniform against some larger matrix. What gets onto the map, in fact, is difference, be it a difference of altitude, a difference of vegetation, a difference in population structure, difference of surface, or whatever. Differences are the things that get onto the map. A difference, then, is an abstract matter. - Gregory Bateson: Steps to an Ecology of Mind
We enter a phase of continuous feedback between the Natural Model, Assembly Model and Synthetic Model. A growing image collection and developing taxonomy (1.1.4) inform new generations of better 'autopsy' drawings (1.1.5) and tectonic assembly models (2.1.2) that in turn specify processes to be scripted and automated (1.3.5). By engaging in this ongoing process we develop synthetic- and paper-based material systems. In parallel we start considering the site:
Re-generate the site - build the Project Site. The Given Site, located at Kent Avenue & North 7th in Williamsburg, provides source material for an actual Project Site, which acts as a project specific design catalyst. The primary site study synthesizes a top-down planning approach with a bottom-up investigation into reading the urban ecology. In the process the Project Site is built. By re-generating the site, the projects become contextualized within a value system that is formulated by the authors (core group)
3.1 Site Terms
Our first approach to the site is through an array of terms, the Site List. Record activities within two blocks of the Given Site by writing a list of terms. You may assemble several lists of terms or phrases describing activities, items, scenarios etc. Each list is consistent in itself in terms of its category and modus (all transitive verbs or nouns or adjectives or phrases).
3.2 Site Notations
From your site lists identify three programs, activities or site elements (Example: Viewing Corridors, Greens, Pedestrian territories, Flood Lines, Garages, Billboard Guerrilla ads, Bars, Vendors, Deli) and generate a map that records their location around the area of the Given Site. From the locations map develop a line drawing that traces the interaction between program points, activity points or site elements (dynamic site map). Lay out as a sequence of six simple line drawings (7x7), one point cloud and one vector map per activity. Include the basic site geometry in each drawing as reference. All drawings are Illustrator line drawings limited to two line weights and three line types. All type Arial 12 pt, titles 18 pt.
3.4 Site Mesh
Assemble a Matrix of Site Meshes (Mesh Matrix) that are generated from site data 3.2 (Site Notations). Reserve three columns for the previously selected programs/activities and three columns for meaningful pairings. Site Lines carry site-specific information, which consequently registers in the Site Mesh. Laser score a selection from the Mesh Matrix.
1.1.4 Expand your image collection. Fine-tune your taxonomy. Specify a set of privileged terms that best describe the morphological and tectonic qualities you have identified in your collection. Informed by your image collection start gathering specimens for your first SEM lab visit. 1.1.5 Improve the drafted 'autopsy' based on the feedback you have received today. In a next generation of drawings (minimum of 3) establish the natural models’ pattern-building capacities, as well as the spectrum of gradual cellular change (scale, proportion) within a given field.
2 Assembly Model
2.1.1 From your drafted ‘autopsy’ derive laser-cutting templates (minimum of 3). Prepare as line drawing a field of continuity and gradual cellular change (scale, proportion). Consider translating line-types (continuous, dashed) into scoring and cutting lines. 2.1.2 Three different raw materials emerge from your first laser-cutting session. When exposed to pressures they reveal specific material properties. Manipulate the material and identify these properties.
Compare the SEM source material with the corresponding paper models. Some aspect of your natural models have been enhanced through the process of drawing and cutting, others have vanished.
We'll install the unit this Thursday morning in HHS 316 - the preliminary SEM Lab. If you are interested in the set up and early probes, please be available before studio 10 am - noon.
Schedule for Thursday:
10am - 11am : Set up of unit by Terry Suzuki (Hitachi) in HHS 316 11am - noon : Demonstration by Mr. Suzuki in HHS 316, students bring specimens noon - 1:30 : Break / Faculty meeting 1:30 - 3:30 : Pin-Up in HHN 108 (student presentations 1.1, 1.3) 3:30 - 4:30 : Pin-Up in HHN 108 (student group presentations 1.2.4) 5:00 - 7:00 : RhinoScript session 2 with Charles Portelli
ï»¿Option Explicit 'OPTION EXPLICIT forces you to declare variables with the DIM or REDIM statement 'OPTION EXPLICIT should always be the first line in the code 'Script written by Charles Portelli 'Script version Wednesday, August 29, 2007 3:05:53 PM
'Using the apostrophe allows for comments to be added in to the code 'Comments are usefull because they allow us to add notes to the code 'that do not affect the execution of the code
'GLOBAL Variables = variables that are used through out the code 'Always declare you global variables in the begining '-------------------------------------------- Dim axiom : axiom = "abc" 'declaring the axiom Dim numberOfGenerations : numberofgenerations = 6 'declaring the number of generations
ReDim rules(2,1) 'declaring the rules rules(0,0) = "a" 'A -> B the letter A gets replaced with the letter B rules(0,1) = "b" rules(1,0) = "b" 'B -> A the letter B gets replaced with the letter A rules(1,1) = "a" rules(2,0) = "c" 'C -> AA the letter C gets replaced with the letters AA rules(2,1) = "aa" '--------------------------------------------
Call Main() 'this tells the computer to go to the MAIN SUB hence Call Main
Dim i,j 'this is where you declare you local variables Dim arrPoint, x,y,z x=0 : y=0 : z=0
'perform the string replacement for each generation For j=0 To numberOfGenerations rhino.print axiom 'print the axiom in the command line 'draw each generation For i=1 To len(axiom) 'for every letter in the axiom arrPoint = array(j,i-1,z) rhino.addTextDot Mid(axiom, i, 1), arrPoint 'add a text dot with each letter from the axiom Next
For i=0 To Ubound(rules,1) 'for each of the rules in the first dimension 'a match is converted into a number axiom = Replace(axiom, rules(i,0), i) 'take the letter in the axiom and replace it with a number Next
For i=0 To Ubound(rules,1) 'the number is replaced with the result of the substitution rule axiom = Replace(axiom, i, rules(i,1)) 'now replace that number based on your rules Next
Next Rhino.Print("finished!") 'when finished display FINISHED in the command line End Sub 'this marks the end of the MAIN SUB
ï»¿Option Explicit 'Script written by Charlie Portelli 'Script version Thursday, August 30, 2007 8:29:50 PM
Dim i, j Dim row : row = 10 Dim column : column = 10 Dim count : count = 0 ReDim pts(120) ReDim UV(1) UV(0) = 11 UV(1) = 11
For i = 0 To row For j = 0 To column Dim temp: temp = array(i,j,rnd) rhino.addpoint(temp) pts(count) = temp count = count+1 Next Next rhino.AddSrfPtGrid UV, pts
Nonlinear interactions between the objects specified by the GTYPE provide the basis for an extremely rich variety of possible PTYPES. PTYPES draw on the full combinatorial potential implicit in the set of possible interactions between low-level rules. The other side of the coin, however, is that in general, we cannot predict the PTYPES that will emerge from specific GTYPES, due to the general unpredictability of nonlinear systems. - Langton
1.1.3 Continue your SEM research. Start an image collection. Identify and classify the creatures you find by naming them according to standard species taxonomy. In addition develop an alternative taxonomy based on the morphological families within your collection. 1.1.4 Start a drafted 'autopsy' to reveal the workings of a few found creatures. In a series of drawings, conduct a geometric and morphological study of the natural assembly. Identify growth - and combinatory language that defines the role of the part to the whole, cell to lattice. Construct from your research material, do not trace.
1.2.3 In a second round of close reading identify all organizational models that are mentioned in "School Architecture and Complexity". The author refers to the organisations of different systems (spatial organisation classroom, institutional organisation, (parent-) teacher-student relation). Highlight and connect text passages that refer to organisations of related systems and scales. 1.2.4 Three models of art-based schooling are discussed in the text: 1) Waldorf Schools, 2) Froebel Kindergaerten and 3) Reggio Emilia Schools. Let us add one more to the list: 4) Montessori Schools. As a team focus on one model to be researched in depth. Give special consideration to the issue of Redundancy and Diversity as it is discussed in the Complexity text. How are other key features of complex systems written into the school system? Follow up on the organisations that Upitis mentions (1.2.3) and identify them in your in-depth research of schooling models.
1.3.3 Read chapter 5 "Abstracting the 'bio-logic' of biology" in Christopher Langton's text, and become familiar with the Gtype/Ptype terminology he introduces. 1.3.4 Adjust the rewriting code that is handed out today during our introduction to RhinoSript. 'Play around' with it. Change the rule base while keeping the number of generations consistent. Apply the same mapping rules you previously developed for the manual system (1.3.2) Note how minor Gtype changes affect the Ptype.
Thursday's session will start an hour early, at 1pm. We'll meet in HHNorth 109 where Charlie will give a brief introduction to Rhino and RhinoScript. The presentation will be followed by a hands-on tutorial supported by Brad. Please bring your Laptop, SEM material (1.1.1) and Rewriting work (1.3) to HHN 109.
By extending the horizons of empirical research in biology beyond the territory currently circumscribed by life-as-we-know-it, the study of Artificial Life gives us access to the domain of life-as-it-could-be, and it is within this vastly larger domain that we must ground general theories of biology and in which we will discover novel and practical applications of biology in our engineering endeavors. - Christoph Langton Children are like tiny flowers: They are varied and need care, but each is beautiful alone and glorious when seen in the community of peers. - Friedrich Froebel
1 Growth Models
In a first exercise we explore different growth models and learn about emergent behavior as it is found in natural, cultural and computational systems.
1.1.1 Collect SEM images on the subject of 'growth' including those of seedlings and cellular formation. 1.1.2 Plant a seed (Avocado, Bean, Citrus, Lentil, Sprout, Tomato, ..) Choose the seed that you plant in response to the SEM images that you researched. Use a seed that promises tectonic and structural qualities. Don't shy away from alien morphologies. Take notes of the seed's growth. Keep a diary of the seedling's development.
1.2.1 Read Rena Upitis' text "School Architecture and Complexity" 1.2.2 Answer these questions: How does Rena Upitis employ the term "complexity"? What are the three educational models that Rena Upitis refers to? Why did the educator Froebel propose gardens as constructive learning environments? How does Art enter the educational models, that Rena Upitis analyzes?
1.3.1 Define a simple rule set (axiom) for a Rewriting System. The axiom consists of only three to four characters. Let the system run for nine generations, starting with a seed of only one character. A pattern emerges from your first axiom. 1.3.2 Write several axioms and develop simple mapping rules (2D and 3D) that help visualize and compare the patterns. Possible mapping rules interpret abstract string information as spatial information (e.g. character "A" = move point up one unit). Do not change a rule set while the system is running. Let it run for a set number of generations, map the strings, then evaluate and improve the rules for a new axiom. Test many axioms and develop a set of criteria to evaluate the results. Consider meta rules.