Studio Jonas Coersmeier with Dr. Donovan N Leonard (nano), Onur Gun (media) and David Mans (ta) at Pratt Institute School of Architecture
Wednesday 4/23, HHS 3rd floor hall
Gisela Baurmann Jonathan Baker Roger Chang Michael Chen Karl Chu Adam Dayem Onur Gun Poonam Khanna Ferda Kolatan Dr. Haresh Lalvani Jason Lee Dr. Donovan Leonard Robert Otani Brent Porter Roland Snooks Terry Suzuki Ben Urick
We operate between the very small and the very large. In the coupled fabrication seminar (SEM) and research studio (SPAN) we take nano probes of natural structures and build long span models.
We revisit Frei Otto, parametrically. Analog optimization techniques are met with and put in close exchange with advanced geometric operations. We embrace Otto's notion of Natural Structures. Beyond the Bionic, which idealizes living structures as resolved and completed systems, and beyond Biomimicry, which suggests to copy those systems in their full complexity, we are in search of procedurally optimized building methods employed in living systems.
At Nanoscale the material properties of organizations change. Gravity is no longer the dominant force when the size of the system radically decreases. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allows glimpses into organizational systems that work beyond the logic of primary gravitational considerations.
The procedural operations of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) are followed by generative drawing and fabrication techniques that analyze, process and enhance the source material. Digital output models inform structural and tectonic propositions that are tested in the context of a long-span structure employed in the comprehensive design studio (SPAN).
SEM/SPAN, while focusing on production and fabrication, will base its exploration in the context of the history of science. Science proper emerged out of proto-science in the 17th century. The driving forces of this first scientific revolution emanated out of the exchange between technological innovation, such as aids for superhuman perception (microscope, telescope) and early modern philosophy. We discuss the materialism of our current paradigm shift in relation to this earlier phase transition and its ideal of objectivity (the world as it is).
SEM/SPAN also offers a comprehensive discussion of structural system taxonomies. According to Otto, the building structures that we have been occupying for ten thousand years are still not entirely understood, nor were they put in relation. His matrices of principal systems and applied structures have open cells, which distinguishes them from other ‘completed’ classification systems and thus invite to fill in blank spots. We identify spots for nano-structures (subvisibilia) within the taxonomy.
The seminar will be held in the form of group discussions, instructor - and student presentations, and it features three guest lecturers: Rhett Russo, Architect, Professor University of Pennsylvania; Lily Zand, Architect, Principal Q LLP; and Dr. Donovan Leonard, Nano Material Science, Duke University
Application Specialist Terry Suzuki will train students to operate the Hitachi SEM, TM-1000.
Size matters: critical understanding of universality and of scale through the transposition of nano systems into long-span structures.
Form matters: fundamental understanding of structural systems through the study of 20th century system classifications and empirical probing of analog models.
Craft matters: proficiency in the generative use of advanced computational models and digital fabrication techniques in research and design.
Time matters: introduction to the Scanning Electron Microscope and participation in pioneering the device's application in the architectural design process.
Tools and devices: SEM, Maya, Rhino, GC, Laser Cut, 3-D print
Course Requirements (SEM):
15 % Attendance, and active class participation
15 % Short group presentation
50 % Production and presentation of SEM image collection, "Nanographia" and "Nanotectonica"
Gisela Baurmann, BuroNY Lily Zand, QLLP Rhett Russo, UPenn Erich Schoenenberger, SU11 Ben Urick, Arup Roland Snooks
- Structure models, sequential paper study and comprehensive model of current sys development - Structural system diagram (global), hybrid system referencing standard structure classification - Local sys diagram / GC diagram describing component's parametric performance
- Model Site Design 1/64"=1'0", landscape design and building interaction with urban context - Drawing Site Design 1/64"=1'0", landscape and building interaction with urban context
- Model Schematic Design 1/32"=1'0", Spatial development of Building (partial site) - Drawing Schematic Design 1/32"=1'0", Building Organization (partial site) - Sectional Study Schematic Design 1/16"=1'0" including adjacent landscape
- Selection from SEM images , "Autopsy" (Analytical + Generative dwg) and "Nanotectonica" - SEM Taxonomy and articulated area of 'natural expertise'
Just came across some of these SEM micrographs of plants acquired in a bio-SEM course I took a few years ago. These samples were prepared by critical point drying followed by a conductive coating. Interesting maybe? (left to right top to bottom; tomato pollen, tomato fruit, drosera, swedish ivy stem, christmas cactus, christmas cactus, tomato skin, tomato stem)
here are two boards i prepared to describe the processes we run for design exploration. these are for explaining the computational tools (scripts) but they also depict how the design process is constructed on top of the computational/analytical understanding.
The SEM micrographs thus far are excellent!!!! I've been wondering about these "protoforming" illustrations that seem to be an integral part of the design process. They captivated my attention and I thought nothing of that......until I stumbled across these images of electron resonance from Prof. Heller. Resonance is simply a constructive interference (an additive process) of waves and finds relevance in physics, quantum mechanics and even as a theory for "love". Electrons are defined to posses a duality and behave as particles AND waves. As these images show the resonance of electron waves produces beauty on the nanoscale when illustrated. The aesthetics of these images immediately made me think of the images I've seen on your pages....and wanted to share the link to the gallery of these images in case it may inspire.
Please click here and here and here for more nano-art and text explanations.
9:30 - 10:10 : Otto presentation Sean and Edwin 10:15 - 11:40 : Review of SEM work (Nanographia, Taxonomy, Autopsy) 11:45 - 2:00 : GC tutorial 1 (Maya to GC and thermal exercise) 2:00 - 4:45 : Review 1, 2, 3 in small groups 4:45 - 6:00 : Consultancy lecture (loads)
Well, this was tucked way back in my brain, the beauty which is displayed by iron (Fe) nanoparticles when subjected to a magnetic field. Ferrofluid is easy to make and the resulting variety of structures produced are limited only by creativity & imagination.
We study precedent organizations, read plans and sections of prominent natatoria and aquatic sport centers, and, beyond typologies, we find organizational models. Then we speculate about the program that can be plugged into these organizations.
3.1 Given Program
Study the program requirements (general syllabus p.8) in a scaled survey.
3.2 Precedent Organization
From a list of precedens select two and conduct a cross-pool study according to the topics below. Start by constructing and drafting (not tracing) one simplified schematic plan and one section of each building/building proposal (scale 1/32). Limit the use of line weight and -type to a minimum. In a second step use the plans and sections as underlay for your analysis by topic. Use reasonably strong, black lines over light gray underlay lines.
Precedents // Frei Otto: Olympic Park in Munich 1972; Zaha Hadid: Aquatic Centre project in London 2012; PTW: Water Cube Beijing 2008; Alvaro Siza: Leca Swimming Pools, Portugal 1966; Alvaro Siza: Llobregat Sports Centrre, Barcelona 2006; Dominique Perrault: Olympic Velodrome and Swimmimgpool, Berlin 1999; Peter Zumthor: Thermal Baths, Vals 1996
3.2.1 Circulation: Reveal and compare the two pools' circulation systems (circulatory system) in diagrammatic terms. Identify hierarchies (primary, secondary, tertiary) and non-hierarchical (horizontal) aspects of the system. Categorize access points, linkages and shortcuts. Work out the relations between movement and gathering spaces, and the relation between internal and external circulation, wet and dry circulation; identify control points and overlaps.
3.2.2 Program: Study and compare the three programmatic organizations. Show how the pool organization defines areas of different activities and their relations. To what degree are the primary program points separated and connected. Do programmatic clusters form; what is the adjacency logic, what is the program sequence? How are areas for swimmers, visitors, and staff related? Does the organization correspond to systems of authority and control?
3.2.3 Building and Site: Discuss and compare in your drawings the two buildings and their relation to the site. Is site integration revealed in plan and in section; to what extend does the site continue within the structure; how much does the building respond to the site? Identify the orientation to the sun (direct light), the organization of openings (light, views), the street access, and relation to neighbors. Does the aquatic center contrast its environment or merge with it?
3.3 User Scenario
Based on three user scenarios and employing selected Nurbs geometry from the ProtoForm, develop a programmatic model for the organization of you aquatic center.
Start by generating three time-based user scenarios that discuss the ecology of activities and spatial sequences.
Compare the three routines. Develop diagrams for the sequence of activities and events. The diagrams register qualities, durations and hierarchies of activities. Be precise about the number of agents involved and their specific time- and spatial requirements. Describe the interaction between the various users and organisms. What are the exchanges that happen within the center and what are its boundaries (services, goods, waste). Do these exchanges evolve over the course of a day or a year? Develop a dynamic system of parallel and nested processes - wet and dry.
Draw the impact different users have on the organization. Speed, flexibility, connectivity and porosity of events describe your system and are applied to the emerging program model. Whether separation between program points results in spatial distribution (example circulation: several entrances), or in the combination of different flows of activitie, your program model serves to structure your architectural program.
Informed by the realization of your pool diagrams, develop a list of terms that describe activities and behaviors for your own center. You may assemble several lists of terms or phrases describing activities, items, scenarios, agents, forces, trajectories etc. Each list is consistent in itself regarding its category and modus (all transitive verbs or nouns or adjectives or phrases). Employing the generated lists of terms rewrite the Generic Program to become your own programmatic proposal for a pool. Include approximate sizes of all program parts.
Program studies Studio Gisela Baurmann, UPenn FA07 (Affleck, Billhymer/Freeze, Suk-Choi)
Start an image collection. Identify and classify the creatures you find by naming them according to standard species taxonomy. Generate at least three images of different magnification levels per specimen, including one low magnification (aperture (circle area) visible). Comply with the studio wide naming convention, and include the scale bar for every image. Save highest resolution images and keep a copy of the original file as well as an enhanced (ps) version.
SEM / Taxonomy
Develop an alternative taxonomy based on the morphological and structural families within your collection. Specify a set of privileged terms that best describe the morphological and tectonic qualities you have identified in your collection.
SEM / Autopsy
Start a drafted 'autopsy' to reveal the workings of a few found creatures. In a series of drawings, conduct a geometric and morphological study of the natural assembly. Identify growth – and combinatory language that defines the role of the part to the whole, cell to lattice. Construct from your research material, do not trace. (Maya 2D / Illustrator)
Establish the natural models' pattern-building capacities, as well as the spectrum of gradual cellular change (size, proportion) within a given field.
Robert Hook: Micrographia, 1664
Micrographia is a historical book by Robert Hooke, detailing the then twenty-eight year-old Hooke's observations through various lenses. Published September, 1664, it was an immediate best-seller. Hooke most famously describes a fly's eye and a plant cell (where he coined that term because plant cells, which are walled, reminded him of a monk's quarters).
One link of many for SEM and other microscopy microgrpahs.
Hope you are all having fun with the TM-1000!
Cocconeis (cock-owe-neigh-us) one isolated valve seen from valve view, the perforations in this siliceous shell allow the cells which normally live within to exchange nutrients etc. with the outside world. Phase contrast micrograph. This picture was taken by David Patterson of material from Limulus-ridden sediments at Plum Island (Massachusetts USA) in spring and summer, 2001. Image copyright: D. J. Patterson, image used under license to MBL (micro*scope).
So, ever wondered just how that tiny beam of electrons is produced from something as simple as a light bulb filament? This animation shows the electron column focusing a broad beam of incident electrons. The beam is focused then rastered along the surface of the sample creating a microgrpah pixel by pixel. hits the same
In a first exercise we address the subject of topology and practice the craft of nurb modeling. The result of the exercise will be a ProtoForm expressed as a surface model and 3D print.
The morphological study is guided by the interest in spatial relations and surface continuity. From a sequence of geometric operations the ProtoForm emerges. Its surface geometry is subject to successive articulation and optimization. The form generation is guided be these minimal requirements:
- One continuous surface envelopes two primary spaces of different size (phase 1) - A series of secondary spaces (n=3-5) continues the transitional logic (phase 2)
Look for spatial and topological qualities. How does one space transition to the next? What are the neighboring conditions? Ignore scale and measurements, ground, orientation, beginning and end. The focus is on the spatial moment and its geometric articulation.
Familiarize yourself with the fundamentals of nurb-based modeling. While testing various surface tools focus on the parent-child relations CV-curve and curve-surface. The hierarchical relations between generating curves and surface expressions remain intact throughout the modeling process. History is kept.
Focus on nurb specific modeling techniques. A process of rebuilding surface constellations as continua is privileged over the additive process of stitching. Consider working from geometric primitives (1) in a process of deformation (2) and rebuilding of surfaces (3)
Keep track of CV- and isoparm count and optimize the surface resolution (4). Greater curvature calls for higher resolution, lower curvature for lower resolution - an economy of geometric means emerges. The relation of surface geometry to surface behavior is crucial. Do not over-determine the surface - trust in the inherent ‘intelligence’ of the curve.
Generate a vast field of variation - Probe Space – and select from it a few iterations to be further optimized. Identify spatial qualities, establish topological families and derive from the genealogy a taxonomy of form. Document the process.
Pay attention to detail, avoid self intersecting surfaces and generate ‘clean’ geometries. Consider nurb-based modeling as a generative sculpting process and a craft.
- From ProtoForm wire frame geometry derive a set of descriptive and analytical drawings. - From one favorite ProtoForm prepare a 3-D print file (offset surface, make airtight)